Resource and energy saving technologies require a mandatory integrated approach to the production, distribution and consumption of electricity. And at the stage of building a house, modern energy-saving technologies are always combined with innovations in the field of construction, since a significant part of electricity is used to heat the house in cold climates and cool it in climates. warm. This immediately requires the planned use of energy efficient materials. In addition, a customized domestic supply system will allow, in some cases, to abandon the traditional method of supplying electricity altogether.
Energy saving technologies in construction
The best example of energy-saving technologies in construction so far can serve as the so-called "energy efficient houses", in which, ideally, in winter, a comfortable temperature is maintained without using a traditional heating system, and in summer without an air conditioning system.
These structures, depending on technological variations, are also called Zero Energy House: "zero energy houses" or "passive houses".
To get as close as possible to the standards of such a house, it contains:
- install an individual boiler room or other source of heat supply, often connecting pumps that return heat from the exhaust air of the ventilation duct, heat from the ground or sewage,
- replace part of the solar electricity (collector), and direct energy from the sun, in turn, is used competently in accordance with the thermal balance of the building, connecting translucent and reflective structures,
- They use modern thermal insulation materials, and this applies to both building materials and communication systems.
The energy saving method described above assumes that the building becomes the final recipient of electricity from power plants. Now, however, the possibility of a complete transition to individual power supply systems is being considered as innovative practices, when the building itself, in effect, becomes a "power plant" and begins to distribute electricity to other consumers. .
This is possible, for example, with the widespread use of nano-photovoltaic cells, which are considered one of the most promising solutions. In Freiburg, Germany, the local solar energy institute is using the city's space as a kind of "testing ground" for solar technology testing, introducing solar panels into the stadium, rebuilding entire neighborhoods (58 residential buildings and one building of offices on the border of the district) by the new concept of "active houses" The main obstacle to the widespread adoption of these technologies is the high cost of ultrapure industrial silicone, which is used for batteries (about $ 450 / kg ). It was replaced by nanotechnology and a special carbon - fullerene. But so far its efficiency is 2. 5 times lower than that of silicone solar cells.
Energy saving technologies in everyday life
The main direction in the creation of energy saving technologies in everyday life is the individual regulation of energy consumption through "smart" technologies, based on:
- Personal habits of residents and preferences in the microclimate.
- the time of year (day) the "smart" system is rebuilt, choosing to turn it on and how hard to work.
For example, an automatic home lighting system turns the light on only when needed, turning it off during the day and on at night when activated by sound through the built-in microphone. When noise occurs within a 5 meter radius, an energy saving lamp automatically turns on, which does not go off while someone is in the room.
But until these "intellectual" innovations become mainstream, experts recommend using electricity "preventative savings" methods in everyday life, including:
- replacement of incandescent lamps with other energy-saving lamps (with reduced consumption of 5 to 6 times) or even cheaper LEDs,
- the transition to high-class energy-efficient appliances (A- A +++), which, compared to outdated models, may show a difference of 50%,
- Turn off devices (computers) in standby mode: televisions, music centers and tape recorders, which still consume 3 to 10 W in a turned off but not off state,
- shutting down or putting the computer into sleep mode, which, during 24-hour work, "consumes" between 70 and 120 kWh per month.
Particular attention should be paid to the refrigerator, which is recommended:
- do not place next to the stove (increases energy consumption by 25-30%),
- do not fill it with food not yet cooled,
- avoid the formation of a gap in the seal,
- do not cover the radiator and do not lean your "back" close to the wall.
The introduction of energy saving technologies in homes and common services seems like a transition to drives with the functions of optimizing the rotation speed based on the real load, which, when operating elevators or ventilation units, can save up to 50% of electricity. .