Currently, the energy saving is one of the priority tasks. This is due to the shortage of energy resources major, with the rising cost of their extraction, as well as with environmental problems.
What is the energy savings?
The energy savings is the efficient use of energy through the application of innovative solutions, viable technically justified economically acceptable terms, environmental and social, do not change their traditional way of life. This definition was formulated at the International energy conference.
Energy saving in any field is reduced essentially to the reduction of useless energy losses. The analysis of the losses in the production, distribution and consumption of energy shows that the largest part of the losses of up to 90% occur in the field of energy, while the loss in the transfer of energy account for only 9% -10%. Therefore, the main efforts in energy saving are concentrated precisely in the area of electricity consumption.
The main role in the increase of the efficiency of energy use belongs to modern energy-saving technologies. Energy saving technology – a new or improved process characterized by the highest efficiency of use of fuel energy resources (TER).
The introduction of energy-saving technologies in the economic activity of companies and individuals, at the domestic level, is one of the important steps in the solution of many of the environmental problems of climate change, pollution of the atmosphere (for example, the emissions from gas cogeneration), the depletion of fossil resources and other
Normally the companies that are implementing the following types of technologies, which allow a considerable energy saving effect:
- The common technology for many companies, related to the use of the energy (variable speed motors, heat exchangers, compressed air, lighting, steam, cooling, drying, etc).
- A more efficient production of energy, including the boiler rooms, electricity and heat, as well as the heat, cold, electricity; the replacement of old industrial machinery in a new and more effective.
- Alternative sources of energy.
Power saving mode is especially relevant to the mechanisms that part-time work with a reduced load – conveyors, pumps, fans, etc, There are many devices that allow to reduce the losses in the operation of the electrical equipment, of which the main ones are batteries, capacitors and variable frequency drives. Variable frequency drive power-adjustable with integrated functions of optimization of flexible power alter the speed of rotation in function of the load, which allows you to save up to 30 to 50% of the electrical energy consumed. It is not usually necessary to replace the standard engine, especially in the modernization of the procedures. These savings of energy of the actuators and the automation tools can be implemented in the majority of industrial enterprises and in the sector of public services: the lifts and the ventilation of the premises prior to the automation of the companies.
The scientists designed, with which the greater part of the heat that is in the tube after the combustion in the production of natural gas, is used to generate additional power, capable of giving the illumination of the five buildings of 16 floors.
Energy-saving technology in the construction are of comprehensive nature, this includes insulation of walls, roofing energy saving, energy savings, paint, double-glazed windows, cost-effective heating and cooling system surfaces.
One of the most common of energy-saving technologies with a great potential of improvement, in the construction sector of the housing – is the boiler rooms. The modern technologies are able to reduce considerably the consumption of energy, reduce maintenance costs, and even increase efficiency. In addition, the replacement of the boiler often allows the company to go with for the environment dirty and expensive coal or fuel oil that is cheaper and cleaner fuels, such as gas or wood pellets.
It also provides a great savings if, instead of separate thermal power plants of points to place in the building to individual heat paragraph, equipped with modern, silent, pumps, compact and efficient plastic heat exchanger.
When the organization of ventilation in the building apply a system recovery (recycling for re-use) of heat of exhaust air and of the variable performance pritochno gates of the units depending on the number of people in the building. These systems allow you to not lose the heat, produced trafficking in persons, devices for light, commercial and office equipment, and which reduce the consumption of heat from an external source – heating or the boiler room.
An example of the houses, which in the future will allow man to live in harmony with nature, at the same time, not depriving yourself, usual comfort, are the so-called housing-zero energy (zero energy house or passive house (passive house), combined with the term "home energy efficiency".
"Energy efficiency" shall be deemed to be that of a home in which the temperature is supported in the winter, without the application of a heating system, and in the summer without the use of air-conditioning systems.
For the home has been energy efficient, when its construction you must do the following:
- The modern use of the thermal insulation of pipelines of heating and hot water.
- Single source heating and the energy supply (individual boiler room or the origin of the plants of cogeneration of energy).
- Heat pumps that use the heat of the earth, the heat, the exhaust of ventilation air and the heat from the wastewater.
- The solar collectors in the system of hot water supply and in the cooling system of the room.
- The heating system throughout the house with the heat, the accountants and staff of the thermal regulation of the regime of the local.
- The mechanical ventilation system and heating are individually adjustable and the elimination of hot air recirculation.
- In each apartment drivers to optimize the heat consumption of the heating and ventilation of the apartments.
- Including structures with greater thermal protection, and defined the indicators of the thermal stability.
- Recovery of heat from solar radiation on the thermal balance of a building at the base of the optimal selection of translucent enclosures.
- The devices that use stray solar radiation to improve the lighting of the premises and reduce the consumption of lighting energy.
- Selection of designs of sunglasses of devices taking into account the orientation and the irradiance of the facades of each season.
- The use of heat from the return water of the system of heat supply for the underfloor heating in the bathrooms.
- The control system of heat and energy, the microclimate of the premises and buildings on the basis of a mathematical model of a building, such as a thermal power system.
There are other ways for more intelligent use of electricity, and not only in production but also in everyday life. Some time ago I referred to "intelligent" lighting system. Energy-saving the effect is based on the fact that the light turns on automatically when it is necessary. The switch has an optical sensor and the microphone. In the afternoon, when the lighting level, lighting off. At dusk, it leads to the activation of the microphone. If in a radius of up to 5 m produces the noise (for example, the steps or the sound the door opens, the light turns on automatically and lights up while the person is on the inside. These lighting systems use energy saving lamps.
The led lamps allow significant energy savings compared with traditional light sources incandescent (up to 80%) and fluorescent lamps (over 40%). These accessories can be used in the lighting of a large variety of objects: subways for pedestrians and parking, a garden Park light, public lighting, lighting of the housing and communal services and emergency lighting.
There are promising projects of energy efficiency in the transport sector. American, the engineers approach to the production of the cars equipped with pads, which convert the heat of the exhaust gases into electricity. Teploelektrogenerator established in the muffler, becomes a part of the heat of the exhaust gases into electricity, which in advance can ensure the operation of the climate control system, music system, etc
German scientists develop high-efficiency, energy-saving devices necessary for cars with hybrid engines. The device works with the help of oil on the highway and electricity in the city, therefore, using the relatively low amount of energy.
In the home of every consumer can save electricity, in accordance with the following rules:
- Replace incandescent lamps with modern energy saving lamps.
- Turn off the devices not used on the network (for example, tv, vcr, stereo).
- Electrical plates and apply plates in the background, that is equal to or slightly exceeds the diameter of the cooking area, do not use vessels with curve background.
- Wash in the washing machine at full load and correctly select the mode of washing.
- Timely remove of the magnificent installation.
- Does not dry hard on the clothes, this means a saving of ironing.
- The more often you change the bags for the dust collection in the vacuum cleaner.
- Put the fridge in the same cool place in the kitchen.
- Use the curtains clear, wallpapers.
- Wash more often in the window, on the sill of the window put a small amount of colors.
- Do not close the curtains of the heating drum.