The communal sector of the economy is one of the largest consumers of fuel, electricity and thermal energy. Everyday life is unthinkable without energy services. Comfortable conditions of life of the people receive lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, appliances. The home of communication, information technologies-the service is carried out through telephones, televisions, computers, etc in which you learned how to save electricity, the water, the heat, the gas in your apartment has a better understanding of the need of saving energy at home and at work
Due to its geographical location the location of belarus is one of the countries with regard to cold weather. The duration of the heating season period is around 200 days, which determines a significant proportion of energy consumption in heating. At the domestic level, it consumes nearly 40% of the total amount of fuel energy resources used by the republic. The consumption of housing and utilities sector of the thermal energy is used for heating (60-70%) and hot water included(30-40%).
Unfortunately, the efficiency in the consumption of domestic energy in our country is at a very low level. For the heating and hot water of an average apartment for a family of 3-4 people a year in the factory or in the boiler rooms burning more than 3 here. In addition, during the year of the family consume 1200-1800 kw ·h of electricity. These values, on average 2 times higher than in industrialized countries comparable european with the weather. When this energy comfort in our homes significantly less than are missing many of the appliances, in the premises often supports a high enough temperature, it leaves a lot to be desired the quality of the air. And domestic energy comfort in large part determines the quality of life of the population, the health status of the people, the availability of free time.
The allocation of domestic and foreign indicators of the indicates the presence of a large energy-saving potential at the household level, especially by the thermal energy, and the need to implement in order to save TER, and to improve the quality of life of the people. For the solution of these tasks, in accordance with the State program "energy Saving", planned and carried out a complex long-term and short-term activities.
The terms and success of their solutions are the following:
- psychological, the pitch and the desire of the population to save energy;
- the knowledge of energy saving methods and the ability to use them in daily life;
- sustainable the attitude of the people towards the use of the energy of the comfort in the subconscious level, discipline, be careful of energy consumption.
If the first two conditions can be provided in a relatively short time due to the economic situation and organizational-administrative of promotion, awareness-raising and education measures for the implementation of the last conditions is time-consuming, since it involves the training of the person since the childhood-specific culture of behaviour and habits, conditioned by the concern about the energy future and environmental well-being of our planet. That is why in the republic organized and articulated and perfecting the system of education in the field of energy-saving, consistently carried out are activities of advertising the work.
In large measure, to the actual capacity of energy saving in the home and the domestic sector can be performed for a short time by the residents themselves with a simple, low-cost and effective way to. It is important to understand the energy savings are not as renounce to the comfort, and vice versa, so as to guarantee the necessary conditions of life for a particular person and the society as a whole, the limited amount of primary energy.
Guidelines for the development of the programmes for the reduction of energy consumption in the home
Where should I start by reducing the consumption of energy? In the first place, you must determine the volumes of consumption of different types of resources and amounts of payment, that is to say, a kind of energy audit. In this help to the counters (if there are) and the bill for energy consumption, as well as of the simple measurements and calculations. It is desirable to determine the means or unit, and the magnitude of the consumption of resources at different periods of time (week, month, year). It is mandatory to constant and systematic work of saving energy. For the evaluation of the ability of energy savings it is necessary to compare the results with the european standards of reference.
This will help you to answer the first question, – saving of a resource is a priority? A logical answer–, which is taken into account, as this will bring them direct benefit. Naturally, to carry out costly energy-saving activities, which may not bring direct and immediate savings, it is necessary, after a detailed analysis of all the benefits of its implementation. Here only takes into account only the electrical power, the payment from other sources of energy is equally divided between the large number of domestic customers. However, it is worth knowing that the saving of any resource to reduce its total consumption and general it costs, and Its budget in particular. In addition, the situation gradually changes: sooner or later, all the energy resources are taken into account, and that before you learn how to your savings, it will be much easier. If you take into account all types of energy, it is necessary to relate the cost of the energy-saving activities and benefit from them, and then classify. All of this is derived from the objectives and the program of Its activity for the conservation of energy, and defines the expected return.
Consider the possible lines of action for the saving of all species are consumed in the everyday life of energy resources.
Saving the thermal energy.
At present, counters of heat uncommon, for several reasons: the high cost, lack of research and the accuracy of the measurement, etc this issue, However, can be considered from another point of view: how to maintain the apartment it is enough a comfortable temperature in terms of heating? In the first place, it is necessary to prepare the heating system.
The conveyer, it will be necessary to wash the interior and clean periodically the dust on the outside. During the internal working of the surface is covered with rust and sediment; sometimes the thickness of the sediments reaches such a magnitude, that inhibits an important conduit of water, not to speak about the transfer of heat. To ensure the normal circulation of air must not saturate the furniture, the space near heating appliances. It is strictly forbidden to close their friezes, panels and even curtains, because, in addition to the drastic reduction of the heat loss, this leads to an increase of the heat loss. In order to reduce the loss of heat through the wall, which is located by the heater unit, and the improvement of the conditions of air circulation is recommended to increase the distance between the appliance and the wall. It is also recommended to install convectors reflective of the screen and the layer of thermal insulation. To limit the transfer of hot air to the inner surface of the glass of the window requires a wide seal of the board. The coloration of the radiators of the oil-based paint reduces the heat loss in the 8-13 %, so it is recommended to use the white of zinc.
On equal terms with the problem of the insufficiency exists, and the problem of the paratope. Of paratope usually affects residents close to the sources of the heating of the houses. The reason paratope – unbalanced systems of heating, centralized. Therefore, it raises the output - it is necessary to regulate the same. To do this, see if you have the pipe of the heating (1) deviation (4). It is possible, builders can simply "forgot" to install it. Then the installation of a bypass (4) and the thermostat (2), or even a simple ball valve allows you to adjust the amount of coolant through the heater (3) and adjust the temperature on the inside.
With the problem of cold, the issue is much more complicated. The fundamental cause of the low temperature in our homes is not the poor quality of the heating, and the enormous loss of heat. Specific consumption of thermal energy in one square meter of housing in our country is in 2-4 times (depending on the type of building) is higher than in the european countries of comparable climate. This indicates that it is produced, and even served in the house of a lot of heat, but immediately is lost. The heat loss in buildings according to Beltei, on average, were distributed as follows:
- window – 36%;
- the ventilation in 28%;
- the walls and 26%;
- floor, basement – 10%.
As well as the main loss of heat is produced in the window, uteplyat (and best change) should, in the first place. The most effective way to is the installation of window frames. Now we propose a lot of different designs, in terms of the ability to keep in the warmth, durability, ecological characteristics are similar and, consequently, the price. Conventional double glazed windows have between the glass to air-drying and differ from those of the windows, only more integrity, ease of cleaning and aesthetic views. Published the vacuum double glazing and windows with double glazing, filled with inert gas. Have great thermal resistance. Glass can be covered low-e termootrazhayuschim film that prevents the attention of heat in the form of radiation and reduces heat loss through the window in a 30-35%. Double glazing, manufactured with the application of the most advanced technologies to have the thermal resistance of conventional exterior walls. Often, double-glazed windows are installed in place of the internal double glass cover on the standard frames. In this way we obtain a triple glazing, which allows to further reduce heat losses.
If in the installation of window frames of tools, you must take care of the reduction of the heat loss through the existing windows. In the first place, the glass must be washed thoroughly, and then save it in the enlightenment. In the second place, you must delete all the cracks and leaks. You can paste the paper, but this must be done without wind at the time. For the solution of the cracks between the frame and the box can be used foam mounting. Glass must be integers. Cheap and very effective is turning on the inside of the outer surface of the cover over the slot, and the installation of a glass unit (the good state of the binding) or clear plastic film. Is triple glazing and the heat loss through the windows reduced by 20-30%. To reduce the humidity of the air between the covers it is recommended to use adsorbents. The dry air has a thermal conductivity lower, and, additionally, it reduces the intensity of the fog and the freezing of the crystals. In winter, it is advisable to put up blackout drapes / curtains, not close to the heating drum. The double glass cover of balconies and loggias allows the cost of the heat loss in 10...13 %. To decrease the loss of heat through the openings of the doors, you must install one of the double doors of the door with the halos seal give a cancel.
Then, you must take care of ventilation, which can often create in the winter, the excess of traction. In the kitchen the vent hole can be filled in part, and in the bathroom, in general, to close, as it will allow to grow to moisten too-dry air (in winter, the air in the heated premises is a decrease of moisture, which adversely affects the health) and create a feeling of warmth. Hereinafter, it is recommended to uteplyat the exterior walls, if the corner room, and the wall of the stairs.
Saving energy when using electric stoves.
In the first place, it is necessary to have alternative stoves eléctricase: electroscience, elektrokofemolke, microwave oven, which have a higher degree of efficiency.
In the second place, the plate should be correct. Propavshaya, chipped and inflammations dirty of the heating elements considerably worse than fulfilling their function, if of course they are.
In the third place, it is necessary to have the corresponding ware. Each time you must choose the size of the corresponding ware to the situation. All the tableware should be with the caps. The case is that without the cover you will need two times more energy and absolutely of all modes, not covered in general or she is not very tight. Bottom of the cooker for electric stoves should be smooth and firmly to lie down on the heating element. At the time of cooking or reflux of water it is convenient to turn off the cooking zone a little before the end of the preparation or of the boiling water, this allows you to save up to 20% of the electricity thanks to the thermal inertia of the burning fire of the cooking area. In the preparation of various dishes, you can save 10 to 30% of the electricity, if used not yet cooled from the cooking zone to preheat the water used in prepared dishes, if you use the pre-settled water at room temperature, not cold from the tap.
Saving energy when using plates of all types. Products for the heat treatment requires a long time, it is best to prepare in pressure cookers. In the beginning of the firing, you must install the full power of the cooker, and after the water boil, reduce to a minimum, as the temperature of boiling of water does not depend on the power input the flow of heat and is 100°C. At the speed of cooking of a product depends only on the temperature. Therefore, the excess heat is spent only on the evaporation of water in the local (moisture) and leads to an excessive consumption of energy (electricity or gas), without affecting the cooking time.